Created by Imran Sayed Last updated February, 2020 English
APIs are ready-made sets of code building blocks that allow a developer to implement programs that would otherwise be hard or impossible to implement. They do the same thing for programming that ready-made furniture kits do for home building — it is much easier to take ready-cut panels and screw them together to make a bookshelf than it is to work out the design yourself
In simple words, API is a messenger that takes your request to the system and tells it what to do and the delivers what you requested for.
Types of APIs
- Third Party APIs
- Browser APIs
a. Third Party APIs
Third party APIs are not built into the browser by default, and you generally have to grab their code and information from somewhere on the Web. For example:
- The Twitter API allows you to do things like displaying your latest tweets on your website.
- The Google Maps API and OpenStreetMap API allows you to embed custom maps into your website, and other such functionality.
b. Browser APIs
Browser APIs are built into your web browser, and are able to expose data from the surrounding computer environment, or do useful complex things. For example:
DOM (Document Object Model) APIallows you to manipulate HTML and CSS, creating, removing and changing HTML, dynamically applying new styles to your page, etc.
Geolocation APIretrieves geographical information. This is how Google Maps is able to find your location and plot it on a map.
WebGLAPIs allow you to create animated 2D and 3D graphics
- Audio and Video APIs like
WebRTCallow you to do really interesting things with multimedia, such as play audio and video right in a web page, or grab video from your web camera and display it on someone else’s computer.
The Document Object Model (DOM) is an API that represents a document with a logical tree.
DOM is the API or layer between the source code and what we see in the browser itself.
- Document – is document in form of HTML file or web page when displayed.
- Object – Every document element e.g. HTML like
<h2></h2>is an object.
- Model – describes how these Objects are represented in a tree fashion.
Uses of DOM:
- DOM connects web pages to scripts or programming languages by representing the structure of a document like HTML representing a web page—in memory.
- DOM is used to interact with web pages , to add , delete or change the structure, style or content of the document.
- HTML describes the structure of a web page
- For browser the HTML is only a piece of text. It does not understand it by default.
- To make any sense of the HTML, browsers first have to convert it into a format they understand. This format is called DOM
- In order to convert the data from one format to another, browsers engines have a special piece of code called
- There are two types of parser : HTML parser and CSS parser.
- The browser engines use HTML parser to convert HTML into DOM, which is a tree like representation of the HTML tags, in form of objects.
- Each HTML tag is represented by a node of the tree called a DOM node.
- The browser builds up the DOM bit by bit. As soon as the first chunks of code come in, it starts parsing the HTML, adding nodes to the tree structure.
- The DOM has two roles:
- 1. represent the HTML document in form of Objects.
A document, consists of a hierarchical tree of nodes.
A node is a fundamental record representing a single object within the document .
Everything we can change in the document are nodes.
There are two types of nodes:
- Element Node – For Example the entire tags (including text inside of it) are the element nodes e.g
- Text Node – The text inside of the tags is the text node e.g. ‘Lorem’ inside of
<p>Lorem</p>is text node .
Element and Text nodes are two separate nodes in the DOM.
These nodes have their specific number:
- Document – 9 ( Entire Document itself)
- Document type – 10 ( < ! DOCTYPE html> )
- Element -1 (<html> , <head>,<title>. <body>, <p>, tag etc)
- Text -3 ( text inside the above tags )
- Comments – 8
- Document Fragments – 11
How does the process work :
When we load a webpage in a browser :
- The browser takes the HTML document sent from the server and converts it into DOM ( tree of objects )